For this week’s blog, I’d like to highlight a region you are familiar with but perhaps not in terms of OWCN or the wildlife that is found there. Region 5, the “South Coast” region is the most urbanized region of California, having the top 3 populated counties. Recall that the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) divides the state into 7 functional regions:
- Region 1: Northern
- Region 2: North Central
- Region 3: Bay Delta
- Region 4: Central
- Region 5: South Coast
- Region 6: Inland Deserts
- Region 7: Marine
Region 5 consists of the counties along the coast from Santa Barbara down to San Diego, also including the offshore islands in those areas.
There are 13 Member Organizations in this region:
- Santa Barbara County
- Channel Islands Marine & Wildlife Institute
- Santa Barbara Zoo
- Santa Barbara Wildlife Care Network
- Channel Islands Cetacean Research Unit
- Los Angeles County
- California Wildlife Center
- International Bird Rescue (South)
- Marine Mammal Care Center
- Aquarium of the Pacific
- Orange County
- Wetlands & Wildlife Care Center
- Pacific Marine Mammal Center
- San Diego County
- Sea World San Diego
- Project Wildlife
- National Marine Mammal Foundation
This region tends to be drier that most of the others, resulting in more drought-tolerant species and isolated populations of the moisture-dependent amphibians. Still, there is an abundance of amazing wildlife particularly in the non-urbanized areas. Let’s cover the profiles of a few that I find particularly interesting.
Coast Range Newt
This colorful subspecies of the California Newt is a Species of Special Concern endemic to the coast and coastal mountains from Mendocino County south to San Diego County. It inhabits wet forests, oak forests, chaparral, and rolling grasslands. This amphibian is terrestrial and diurnal as an adult but aquatic when breeding and uses the same breeding sites throughout its life.
While it is understood among wildlife rehabilitators to watch out for beaks, teeth and claws/talons, this tiny animal can actually kill you. Adults secrete tetrodotoxin on their skin, the same toxin found in pufferfish. Whenever I hear “tetrodotoxin” I always think of Homer Simpson eating Fugu and his eventful drive home. However, the actual initial signs of toxicity are a tingling, burning and numbing sensation of the lips and tongue, followed by numbness of the face and extremities and eventually leading to death due to respiratory failure.
Light-footed Ridgway’s Rail
This rail is one of the most endangered shorebirds in California. Federally and State Endangered as well as CDFW Fully Protected, this bird frequents coastal wetlands from Southern California into Baja California.
It is pretty easy to distinguish from other rails in that it is large and robust (like an athletic chicken) with a rust-colored neck and breast, barred flanks, and a long, mostly orange beak, particularly the mandible. Still, you may not see it often because of its reclusiveness and tendency to stay hidden in the dense marsh vegetation. When threatened it also acts like a chicken in that it often prefers to run rather than fly or swim.
Although the Ringtail inhabits all regions, it is an uncommon small mammal that is rarely seen. This nocturnal carnivore has a special interest to me because when I first started in wildlife rehabilitation I had not known there were populations in the Santa Monica Mountains until I saw a couple that had been hit by cars along Malibu Canyon Road. A little while after we noticed them we were fortunate to rehabilitate one at the facility I worked. Some time later, while searching for a Golden Eagle one evening in Malibu Creek State Park, we came across a large group of them!
The Ringtail is a peculiar looking animal that perhaps not many of you knew existed in California. They are found in riparian and rocky areas, using hollow trees or large rock landscape for cover. They are listed by CDFW as Fully Protected after their numbers significantly declined due to trapping for their pelts.
Bald and Golden Eagles
Although less common to Region 5, both the Golden and Bald Eagles can be found here. Both species of this magnificent raptor are listed as Fully Protected by CDFW, with the Bald Eagle also listed as State Endangered. They are the two largest raptors in California (excluding the California Condor for those who consider that a raptor). The juvenile Bald Eagle can also sometimes be mistaken for a Golden Eagle, as they are similar in coloration.
Even though they can look similar at certain life stages, these two species differ in many ways. The Golden Eagle frequents open foothills and mountain regions, preying on mammals; while the Bald Eagle prefers areas next to larger water sources for fish. Haviing worked with both species, I have found that they also differ greatly in temperament. The Golden is a very cool and collected customer that will tolerate extended periods of care and handling. The Bald, on the other hand, is the extreme opposite, very easily stressed and one that would be difficult to rehabilitate for an extended period of time.
San Clemente Loggerhead Shrike
This shrike is a subspecies endemic to San Clemente Island. It is darker in coloration than other subspecies but can easily be differentiated simply by the location it is found. It frequents lowlands and foothills with open areas and scattered places for perching and surveying for prey. I also find shrikes in general to be somewhat fascinating in how they skewer their prey on sharp objects for feeding or caching, although that may be a bit morbid.
This bird is both Federally Endangered and a CDFW Species of Special Concern. At one point it was believed to be the most endangered animal in North America.
Most of my time living in California was spent in Los Angeles County, for my veterinary internship, working overnight emergency and then at the California Wildlife Center. It was where I received most of my experience with wildlife. The common species found there are often quite different from other regions, mostly due to the dry climate and their tolerance of urbanization but each and every region has an amazing diversity of species that can be appreciated.